Facing the cruel nature of people!
After the Holocaust, many behaviorist scientists are looking for ways to understand why there are so many normal, civilized Germans that other humans have committed such unreasonable atrocities.
A large-scale research report published in 1950 described experiments in the direction of psychoanalysis conducted by a multidisciplinary research group, which believed that prejudice and racial hatred were attributed to “powerful personality”, which was a special fatherhoodAnd children experience the natural growth.
However, social psychologists have found this explanation to be too condensed; they believe that the answer may involve more of a special social pattern that causes normal people to produce atrocious behaviors that are not consistent with personality.
To explore this possibility, in early 1960, a newspaper in New Haven published an ad seeking volunteers to come to Yale University for research on memory and learning methods.
Any adult male who is not a student in college or high school can apply for it. Participants will be paid $ 4 per hour (about $ 20 today) plus transportation costs.
Forty men aged 20-50 were selected, each assigned a different meeting time.
In a large laboratory, everyone went to see a well-dressed young man in a gray experimental uniform.
Also met was another “volunteer”, a middle-aged man who looked like an Irish American and looked good.
The person wearing the experimental uniform, the obvious researcher, was actually a 31-year-old middle school biology teacher, and the middle-aged man was a professional accountant.
Both were psychologists conducting the experiment-Stanley of Yale University.
Co-conspirator of Milgram.
They will play the role written by Stanley.
The researcher explained to two men, real and fake volunteers, that he was studying the effects of punishment on learning.
One will act as a teacher and the other as a learner.
Investigate a student who makes a mistake and the teacher will give him a shock.
The two volunteers arrested each other to decide what role they would play.
The “naive” volunteer caught the “teacher”.
(In order to ensure the effect, “Teacher” is written on both notes, but the collusion person will immediately throw it away after grabbing the paper, and will not show it out.
) Then, the researcher will first insert it into a small room. The learner puts it in front of a table, he is tied up, and the electrode is connected to the wrist.
He said he hoped the shock would not be too heavy; the person had high blood pressure.
Then, the teacher was taken into another adjacent room where he could speak to the learner and hear the learner’s voice, but he could not be seen.
There was a large shiny metal box on the table, said to be an electric shock generator inside.
There are more than thirty switches arranged in a row, each switch is marked with a voltage number (15 to 450), and “light shock”, “moderate shock” and so on, until 435 is marked “dangerous”: Severe electric shock “, and two switches, which are simply labeled” XXX. ”
“The role of the teacher, the researcher said, is to read out some pairs of words (similar to blue, sky and dog, cat) to the learner and test his memory.
Read the first word of a word first, then the four possible answer words, and let him choose the correct one of them.
The learner selects the answer by pressing the button in front of him, and the light bulb on the teacher’s desk lights up.
First, the learner chose the wrong answer, and the teacher flipped the switch to give him an electric shock, starting at the lowest level.
Investigating the student made a mistake and the teacher gave him a higher level of electric shock.
At the beginning, the experiment was easy and nothing happened.
The learner will come up with some correct answers and some wrong answers. The teacher will give the learner a slight electric shock after each wrong answer, and then continue.
However, learners are making more and more mistakes, and the degree of electric shock is getting higher-of course, these instruments are some fake devices, in fact, no current flows from them-actually getting worse and worseAlready.
At 75 volts, the learner made a groan that he heard; at 120 volts, he shouted, saying that the electric shock had made him very painful; at 150 volts, he called out: “Let me go, I don’t want to try it!
Whenever the teacher shakes, the researcher standing next to him says, “Please continue.
“At 180 volts, the learner shouted,” I can’t stand the pain!
At 270 volts, he howled.
When the teacher hesitated, the researchers said, “The experiment requires you to go on.
“Later, when the learner started hitting the wall, or even later, he started screaming, the researcher seriously thought:” You have to go on, this is absolutely necessary.”
“Beyond 330 volts, there is only silence next door-which is the same as choosing the wrong answer-the researchers said:” You have no other choice; you have to go on.
“The amazing distraction is that-Milgram himself is also very certain-63% of the teachers really went on, and went all the way to the end.
However, this is not because they are sadistic, and can feel the pleasure from the pain they think is happening. (Standard personality tests show that in complete compliance distortion and those who refuse to proceed at some point.There are no differences); or, to the contrary, many of them experienced severe pain when they proceeded in accordance with the researchers’ orders.
As Milgram stated in his report: In many cases, nervousness is so low that it is rarely seen in a psychology laboratory.
You can see flashes of sweating, trembling, stuttering, biting lips, moaning, and fingernails all caught in the meat . A mature, self-controlling businessman, smiled when he entered the laboratory, veryconfidence.
Within 20 minutes, he became trembling, stuttering, and soon approached a mental breakdown . However, he continued to respond to every word of the experimenter, and continued to execute the command until the end.
Thankfully, Millgram did not report some of the symptoms he experienced while observing the torture of these teachers.
He is a lively and honest little man. He didn’t talk about how he felt about the pain of these obesity, otherwise, this report will surely be more colorful.
His interpretation of these results is that this situation is the use of cultural expectations to generate obedience to authority.
Volunteers enter the experiment to play the role of collaborators and roles, while researchers play an authoritative role.
In our society and in many other societies, children are taught from an early age on how to observe authority, regardless of whether the person who has authority wants you to do it right or wrong.
In experiments, researchers feel the need to execute orders; they can inflict pain and harm on an innocent person because they feel the researcher, not themselves, responsible for taking action.
In Milgram’s view, his experimental series helped explain why so many normal Germans, Austrians, and Poles would have committed atrocities such as death camps, or at least accepted Jews and Gypsies andMass killing orders for other disgusted nations.
Eichman said that when he was tried in Israel he found himself playing a role in destroying millions of Jews, but at the time he had to carry out authority orders.
) Mmil Graham constantly changes the experimental method, thus proving his explanation is correct.
One change is this. Before the researcher has had time to talk to the teacher about the nature of continuing to use higher voltages, there is a sudden call for him; his position will be replaced by a volunteer (also collusionPerson), he seemed very interested in compressing on demand, and constantly asked teachers to continue compressing.
However, he is a substitute, not a real authority; in this case, only 20% of teachers will continue to work.
Milgram also changed his approach to adjust the composition of the team.
Generally, learners are kind, chunky, and middle-aged, while teachers are well-dressed, serious young researchers.
But he switched roles again.
In this case, the percentage of teachers going all the way will be reduced, but only to 50%.
Obviously, it is the role of authority and victim, not individual character.
Another disturbing side study of Milgram is his investigation of what people think of themselves in this situation.
He explained the composition of the experiment to college students, behavioral scientists, psychological engineers, and laymen in detail, and then asked them what they would do to stop.
Despite their different backgrounds, all groups like them said they would stop at about 150 volts against the experimenter’s request because the victim was asking him to release him at this time.
Milgram also asked some undergraduates about the level at which they would not listen to the experimenter, and the answer was about 150 volts.
Therefore, people’s estimates of what they will do and their moral ideas about how they should behave have nothing to do with what they actually do under the authority-controlled facts.
Milgram’s obedience research has attracted a lot of attention and won the 1964 American Science and Technology Progress Award for his research in the field of social psychology.
(In 1984, when Milgram died at the age of 51 of a heart attack, Roger.
Brown called him “perhaps one of the most talented experimental scientists in social psychology of our time.”
) In more than ten years, about 130 similar experiments have been conducted, including some experiments conducted in other countries.
Most experiments have confirmed and expanded Milgram’s findings, and, for many years, his experimental process or its change script has been an important model for obedience research.
Today, no researchers use this method anymore and dare not do it. As a result of historical development, we just look at it briefly.
Lao Qiu commented: At the beginning of human beings, whether sex is good or evil is a long-standing issue.
In fact, good or evil is just an integral part of human nature. It is impossible to distinguish between good and evil in black and white.
When the impact of the environment on people breaks through to improve the content of goodness, the external content is mostly good; when conditions such as those in the experiment appear, then the evil in human nature will be like an open Pandora’s box.